Regional Source Identification Using Lagrangian Stochastic Particle Dispersion and HYSPLIT Backward-Trajectory Models
|Title||Regional Source Identification Using Lagrangian Stochastic Particle Dispersion and HYSPLIT Backward-Trajectory Models|
|Year of Publication||2011|
|Authors||Koracin, D, Vellore, R, Lowenthal, DH, Watson, JG, Koracin, J, McCord, T, DuBois, DW, Chen, LWAntony, Kumar, N, Knipping, EM, Wheeler, NJM, Craig, K, Reid, S|
|Journal||Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association|
The main objective of this study was to investigate the capabilities of the receptor-oriented inverse mode Lagrangian Stochastic Particle Dispersion Model (LSPDM) with the 12-km resolution Mesoscale Model 5 (MM5) wind field input for the assessment of source identification from seven regions impacting two receptors located in the eastern United States. The LSPDM analysis was compared with a standard version of the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) single-particle backward-trajectory analysis using inputs from MM5 and the Eta Data Assimilation System (EDAS) with horizontal grid resolutions of 12 and 80 km, respectively. The analysis included four 7-day summertime events in 2002; residence times in the modeling domain were computed from the inverse LSPDM runs and HYPSLIT-simulated backward trajectories started from receptor-source heights of 100, 500, 1000, 1500, and 3000 m. Statistics were derived using normalized values of LSPDM- and HYSPLIT-predicted residence times versus Community Multiscale Air Quality model-predicted sulfate concentrations used as baseline information. From 40 cases considered, the LSPDM identified first- and second-ranked emission region influences in 37 cases, whereas HYSPLIT-MM5 (HYSPLIT-EDAS) identified the sources in 21 (16) cases. The LSPDM produced a higher overall correlation coefficient (0.89) compared with HYSPLIT (0.55–0.62). The improvement of using the LSPDM is also seen in the overall normalized root mean square error values of 0.17 for LSPDM compared with 0.30–0.32 for HYSPLIT. The HYSPLIT backward trajectories generally tend to underestimate near-receptor sources because of a lack of stochastic dispersion of the backward trajectories and to overestimate distant sources because of a lack of treatment of dispersion. Additionally, the HYSPLIT backward trajectories showed a lack of consistency in the results obtained from different single vertical levels for starting the backward trajectories. To alleviate problems due to selection of a backward-trajectory starting level within a large complex set of 3-dimensional winds, turbulence, and dispersion, results were averaged from all heights, which yielded uniform improvement against all individual cases.