Extending the Kolmogorov-Zurbenko Filter: Application to Ozone, Particulate Matter, and Meteorological Trends
|Title||Extending the Kolmogorov-Zurbenko Filter: Application to Ozone, Particulate Matter, and Meteorological Trends|
|Year of Publication||2005|
|Authors||Wise, E, Comrie, A|
|Journal||Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association|
Tropospheric ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM) are pollutants of great concern to air quality managers. Federal standards for these pollutants have been promulgated in recent years because of the known adverse effects of the pollutants on human health, the environment, and visibility. Local meteorological conditions exert a strong in- fluence over day-to-day variations in pollutant concentrations; therefore, the meteorological signal must be removed in order for air quality planners and managers to examine underlying emissions-related trends and make better air quality management decisions for the future. Although the Kolmogorov-Zurbenko (KZ) filter has been widely used for this type of trend separation in O3 studies in the eastern United States, this article aims to extend the method in three key ways. First, whereas the KZ filter is known as a useful tool for O3 analysis, this study also evaluates its effectiveness when applied to PM. Second, the method was applied to Tucson, AZ, a city in the semi-arid southwestern United States (Southwest), to evaluate the appropriateness of the method in a region with weaker synoptic weather controls on air quality than the eastern United States. Third, additional forms of output were developed and tailored to be more applicable to decision-makers’ needs through a partnership between academic researchers and air quality planners and managers. Results of the study indicate that the KZ filter is a useful method for examining emissions-related PM trends, resulting in small, but potentially significant, differences after adjustment. For the Tucson situation with weaker synoptic controls, the KZ method identified mixing height as a more important variable than has been found in other cities.